Learning Portfolio 3, Item 1, Q1

Performance load, described as the required mental and physical activity to reach goals and objectives, consists of two types of loads, being cognitive and kinematic loads.

Cognitive load is attached to mental activity, and the use of the human brain and mind while working to achieve these goals. Sweller, Ayres and Kalyuga (2011) infer that cognitive load is increased and becomes unrelated during learning activities.

Kinematic load, therefore, is attached to physical activity, and the use of the human body to achieve these same goals.

Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) recognise that higher performance load correlates with lower success and increase in errors, and state that both cognitive and kinematic loads can be reduced by also reducing the tasks involved.

Reference List
Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., (2003). Performance Load. Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148-149). Massachusetts:
Rockport.
Sweller, J., Ayres, P., Kalyuga, S., (2011). Cognitive load theory. New York: Springer Publishing.

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Learning Portfolio 2, Item 1, Q2

The wrong cross is an example of aesthetic and functional consistency which is recognised across Western cultures as a symbol for wrongness. Not only is the symbol consistently used across educational practices, but it is also used in design, such as for webpages where it means to close the tab or window. The X is used as a strike-through symbol to indicate wrongness. This X is also used to check boxes on ballots, expanding its strike-through uses. This symbol has become well recognised across Western cultures where children and adults specifically know what it means. Asian cultures, however, also use this symbol to represent correctness, and so this symbol is consistent to them for different reasons.

Alarms are used in many societies and cultures to detect smoke and fires, and will alert residents of the danger with loud ringing sounds. No matter where the person is from, the purpose of the alarm is designed to shock and warn whoever hears it, and its specific sound is attached to danger. The design and purpose of these alarms are universal and have been for years, making it externally consistent and recognised by all.


A broad example of all types of consistency, being aesthetic, functional, internal and external, would be human beings. Humans are recognised since birth and beyond death, through the biological and anatomical structure that constitutes the human body. Despite diseases, disorders, abnormalities, and mutations that may occur, these are all additional to humans themselves. Despite differences in looks and the physical person, people are still familiar with the person as a human, as humans share 99% of DNA with each other. This biological consistency is how we recognise one another, because we realise we are similar in the way we live and the way we exist, and this consistency either unifies us or tears us apart.

Reference List
All-free-download. (2012). Red Cross X clip art [image]. Retrieved from

The Guardian. (2011). Public crowd [image]. Retrieved from

Shockwave Electrical Perth. (2012). Smoke Alarm Detector Electrician Perth [image]. Retrieved from

Learning Portfolio 2, Item 1, Q1

Consistency, a section written by William Lidwell, Kritina Holden and Jill Butler and featured in Universal Principles of Design (2003), defines consistency as the parts of a design that are similar allowing the system to become more usable.

The authors identify four types of consistency used in everyday life and not only in design, namely aesthetic, functional, internal and external consistency. These types of consistency entwine with principles of design and systematic elements in the environment,  and they enable people to be able to learn quickly and focus their attention on relevant aspects.

Aesthetic design consistency, for example, exists within the program or the website and its use of typography and menus, that have the same uses and effects as each other to provide navigation and comfort for the user (Silver, 2004).

Similar to typography in aesthetic consistency, language as a broad term provides functional consistency and sometimes inconsistency (Laidlaw, 2013), where creating meaning and purpose through language requires questioning, challenging, mirroring, observing and inquiring (Baldwin, 2004).

Where Lidwell, Holden and Butler argue that consistency is key to a successful design, Nielsen (ed.) provides a checklist to ensure complete effectiveness, listing a simple design, a style guide, a call back code, a virtual interface, object-oriented programming and interface code generating tools (1989), and this internal consistency arrives through aesthetic and functional consistency (2003).

External consistency can be defined as the relationship between these three other elements of consistency, as to achieve external consistency with the environment, there must also be consistency within the system and its operation. This consistency can only be reached if the user is familiar and comfortable with the other elements.

Although this reading is an excerpt from a book about design, it is important to note that consistency is relative to everyday life, within our own minds and within our own actions. A lot of the norms and standards are met through consistent actions, and inconsistency is sometimes met with isolation and separation.

Reference List:

Baldwin, F., (2004). Creating meaning through language. Shambhala Institute. Retrieved from
http://www.meadowlark.co/
Laidlaw, G., (2013, August 29). Why Consistent Language Matters. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Why Consistent Language Matters

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., (2003). Consistency. Universal principles of design. Massachusetts: Rockport.
Nielsen, J., (Ed.). (1989). Coordinating user interfaces for consistency. Boston, MA: Academic Press.
Silver, M., (2004). Exploring interface design. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Learning Portfolio 1, Item 1, Q2

2013 Smartphones
One of the reasons smart phones, and mobile phones in particular, have become so popular, is that these phones simplify tasks into an object that fits in the palm of one’s hand. All the technological necessities are accessible anywhere and at anytime, as these phones are built and designed to go everywhere with its user. These phones also provide strong relationships with the user, and these devices are so prominent due to the trust and loyalty involved. People also foster specific designs that tailor society, such as Apple and Android, where one user feels a sense of a belonging while using one brand over another.


First person shooters, or FPS video games, are predominantly consistent through different titles and brands due to the genre and its conventions. Changes to the physical appearance change between various titles and games, although the design of the genre constitutes similar modes, plots, tactics and strategies regardless of the game. A frequent player of FPS video games can pick up a new game, and although the game would be different aesthetically, the design itself creates similar usability. This somewhat opposes the argument of the reading, as these games are very popular between players, and many of these games are played through the usability provided by the general design.

Cartoons are one of the best examples for aesthetic design, and they create usability through the interaction and engagement from its audience. Cartoon characters are specifically designed from people for the people, possessing similar and likely traits that the audience understands and are familiar with. The Simpsons, for example, is host to a multitude of vastly aesthetic characters, designed to look and sound relatable, enabling each audience member to engage with the cartoon in differing ways. The colour that is prominently used by cartoons also provide a large aesthetic factor that creates interest within the audience.

Reference List

Aziz, H. (2012). Yemen—Street-fight [image]. Retrieved from http://bulk.destructoid.com/ul/232613-black-ops-ii-reinvents-the-multiplayer-experience/Yemen—Street-fight 620x.jpg
Universal Studios Hollywood. (2011). Simpsons [image]. Retrieved from http://www.universalstudioshollywood.com/site-content/uploads/2012/01/simpsons_961x421.jpg
Williams, S. (2013). Smartphones [image]. Retrieved from http://techfruit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/2013-smartphones.jpg

Learning Portfolio Item 1 – Q1

Aesthetic-Usability Effect, a section written by William Lidwell, Kritina Holden and Jill Butler and featured in Universal Principles of Design (2003), analyses the ways in which aesthetic designs are used more often than less aesthetic designs. A comparison is made between aesthetic designs and “human attractiveness” (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003, p. 18), where first impressions impact perceptions made and gathered.

This article argues that the way the design looks is specifically important in how it is used. Designs evoke positive feelings from the user that allow them to connect and engage with it.

In relation to design usability, video games are a key factor, where it comes down to the design to engage the player. Adams (2013) states that players engage with the game as long as it does not strain their memory and their view on the game, that is to not bombard the player with unnecessary on-screen information.

Similar findings are reported by Tractinsky, Katz, and Ikar (2000) who details similar discoveries of aesthetic usability, and states the correlation between perception of aesthetics and perception of usability. This was achieved through testing of an ATM, where studies had shown that usability of the machine was due to the perception of its aesthetics, and not from its usability itself.

More evidence to support this was concluded in a 2005 study of twelve Master’s degree students, who discovered that although aesthetic design may not work as well as an unattractive design, it is perceived to work better (Chawda et al., 2005).

Attractive aesthetic design not only seems to work better, but users interacting with the design also base credibility of the creator on it, where a design not only resembles the creator’s input, but the design also generates subconscious emotion and feeling (David & Glore, 2010).

Aesthetic design is more than something that users see. This is a general theme to the article and is backed up by many studies, but it is also representative within our own lives, where we as humans live around aesthetics everyday, and judge and generate feelings accordingly.

Reference List
Chawda, B., Craft, B., Cairns, P., Ruger, S., Heesch, D., (2005). Do “attractive things work better”? An exploration of
          search tool visualisations. Retrieved from
http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~pcairns/papers/ChawdaCraftCairns.pdf
David, A., Glore, P., (2010). The impact of design and aesthetics on usability, credibility, and learning in an online
environment. 
Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, (13, 4).
Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., (2003). Aesthetic-Usability Effect. Universal Principles of Design (pp. 18-19).
          Massachusetts: Rockport.
Tractinsky, N., Katz, A. S., Ikar, D., (2000). What is beautiful is usable (pp. 127-145). Amsterdam: Elsevier.